Descend we now from the aspirations of philosophy to the religion of the ignorant. At the very outset, I may tell you that there is no polytheism in India. In every temple, if one stands by and listens, one will find the worshippers applying all the attributes of God, including omnipresence, to the images. It is not polytheism, nor would the name henotheism explain the situation. “The rose called by any other name would smell as sweet.” Names are not explanations.
I remember, as a boy, hearing a Christian missionary preach to a crowd in India. Among other sweet things he was telling them was, that if he gave a blow to their idol with his stick, what ‘could it do ? One of his hearers sharply answered, “If I abuse your God, what can He do ?” “You would be punished,” said the preacher, “when you die.” “So my idol will punish you when you die,” retorted the Hindu.
The tree is known by its fruits. When I have seen amongst them that are called idolaters, men, the like of whom in morality and spirituality and love, I have never seen anywhere, I stop and ask myself, “Can sin beget holiness ?”
Superstition is a great enemy of man, but bigotry is worse. Why does a Christian go to church ? Why is the Cross holy ? Why is the face turned towards the sky in prayer ? Why are there so many images in the Catholic Church ? Why are there so many images in the minds of Protestants when they pray ? My brethren, we can no more think about anything without a mental image than we can live without breathing. By the law of association the material image calls up the mental idea and vice versa. This is why the Hindu uses an external symbol when he worships. He will tell you, it helps to keep his mind fixed on the Being to whom he prays. He knows as well as you do that the image is not God, is not omnipresent. After all how much does omnipresence mean to almost the whole world ? It stands merely as a word, a symbol. Has God superficial area 1 If not, when we repeat that word ‘omnipresent,’ we think of the extended sky or of space, that is all.
As we find that somehow or other, by the laws of our mental constitution, we have to associate our ideas of infinity with the image of the blue sky, or of the sea, so we naturally connect our idea of holiness with the image of a church, a mosque or a cross. The Hindus have associated the ideas of holiness, purity, truth, omnipresence, and such other ideas with different images and forms. But with this difference that while some people devote their whole lives to their idol of a church and never rise higher, because with them religion means an intellectual assent to certain doctrines and doing good to their fellows, the whole religion of the Hindu is centred in realisation. Man is to become divine by realising the divine ; idols or temples or churches or books are only the supports, the helps, of his spiritual childhood ; but on and on he must progress.
He must not stop anywhere. “External worship, material worship,” say the Vedas, “is the lowest stage ; struggling to rise high, mental prayer is the next stage, but the highest stage is when the Lord has been realised.” Mark, the same earnest man who is kneeling before the idol tells you : “Him the sun cannot express, nor the moon, nor the stars, the lightning cannot express Him, nor what we speak of as fire ; through Him they shine.” But he does not abuse any one’s idol or call its worship sin. He recognises in it a necessary stage of life. “The child is father of the man.” Would it be right for an old man to say that childhood is a sin or youth a sin ?
If a man can realise his divine nature with the help of an image, would it be right to call that a sin ? Nor, even when he has passed that stage, should he call it an error ? To the Hindu, man is not travelling from error to truth, but from truth to truth, from lower to higher truth. To him all the religions, from the lowest fetichism to the highest absolutism, mean so many attempts of the human soul to grasp and realise the Infinite, each determined by the conditions of its birth and association, and each of these marks a stage of progress ; and every soul is a young eagle soaring higher and higher, gathering more and more strength till it reaches the Glorious Sun.
Unity in variety is the plan of nature, and the Hindu has recognised it. Every other religion lays down’ certain fixed dogmas, and tries to force society to adopt them. It places before society only one coat which must fit Jack and John and-Henry, all alike. If it does not fit John or Henry, he must go without a coat to cover his body. The Hindus have discoverd that the absolute can only be realised, or thought of, or stated, through the relative, and the images, crosses and crescents are simply so many symbols, – so many pegs to hang the spiritual ideas on. It is not that this help is necessary for every one, but those that do not need it have no right to say that it is wrong. Nor is it compulsory in Hinduism.